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From a middle class family, I was born in Hsin Ying, Tainan on October 10 th, 1965. My father is a civil official at Tainan City Government. My mother is a house wife good at cooking. Although I am the only child of my parents, I am by no mans a spoiled one. On the contrary, I have been expected to be a successful man with advanced education. I study hard at school. Besides texts knowledge, journalism is my favorite; whenever reading, my heart is filled with great joy and interesting.www.ExamW.CoM
“Being good is must; successful, however, is plus.” Father adopts the idea of his father. Especially in military service, I realized it more precisely. People said: Military service makes a boy to man, I agree that.
I realized the importance of English and began to study diligently when I was eighteen. I did not start in my early age, but I hope that I could pass the test of General English Proficiency Test. And this is my best wish at the moment.
所谓视觉敏感型的人群，是借助视觉来记忆事物的类型。一般说来，人的`记忆以视觉型居多。人类的记忆信息中有70－80％是视觉性的。对于这一类型的人来说，使记忆信息视觉化，对他们最为合适。 这类人群在背单词时可结合历年真题中出现的生词去查阅并记录在personal dictionary。 背单词时，不要只看单词列表，要结合阅读理解的文章来记忆，效果很好。
mirth---m(妈妈)+ irth(birth) 妈妈看你出生了---高兴
brief grief relief ----不(b)简洁， 哥(g)悲伤， 阿姨(re)说谎(lie)为(f) 缓解
irrigate irritable ---- 灌溉的是大门(gate), 激怒的是桌子(table)
exhaust (一个早死的他) 用尽， 耗尽， 使精疲力尽
illumine (一路明) 点亮 照亮
cent-----钱 decent innocent reticent incentive
1.A number of factors are accountable for this situation.
A number of factors might contribute to the phenomenon.
2. The answer to this problem involves many factors.
3. The phenomenon mainly stems from the fact that...
4. The factors that contribute to this situation include...
5. The change in ...largely results from the fact that...
6. We may blame ...,but the real causes are...
7. Part of the explanations for it is that ...
One of the most common factors is that ...
Another contributing factor is ...
Perhaps the primary factor is that
But the fundamental cause is that
the discovery of the antarctic not only proved one of the most interesting of all geographical adventures， but created what might be called “the heroic age of antarctic exploration”。 by their tremendous heroism， men such as shakleton， scott， and amundsen caused a new continent to emerge from the shadows， and yet that heroic age， little more than a century old， is already passing. modern science and inventions are revolutionizing the endurance， future journeys into these icy wastes will probably depend on motor vehicles equipped with caterpillar traction rather than on the dogs that earlier discoverers found so invaluable and hardly comparable.
few realize that this antarctic continent is almost equal in size to south america， and enormous field of work awaits geographers and prospectors. the coasts of this continent remain to be accurately charted， and the maping of the whole of the interior presents a formidable task to the cartographers who undertake the work. once their labors are completed， it will be possible to prospect the vast natural resources which scientists believe will furnish one of the largest treasure hoards of metals and minerals the world has yet known， and almost inexhaustible sources of copper， coal， uranium， and many other ores will become available to man. such discoveries will usher in an era of practical exploitation of the antarctic wastes.
the polar darkness which hides this continent for the six winter months will be defeated by huge batteries of light， and make possible the establishing of air-fields for the future inter-continental air services by making these areas as light as day. present flying routes will be completely changed， for the antarctic refueling bases will make flights from australia to south america comparatively easy over the 5，000 miles journey.
the climate is not likely to offer an insuperable problem， for the explorer admiral byrd has shown that the climate is possible even for men completely untrained for expeditions into those frozen wastes. some of his parties were men who had never seen snow before， and yet he records that they survived the rigors of the antarctic climate comfortably， so that， provided that the appropriate installations are made， we may assume that human beings from all countries could live there safely. byrd even affirms that it is probably the most healthy climate in the world， for the intense cold of thousands of years has sterilize this continent， and rendered it absolutely germfree， with the consequences that ordinary and extraordinary sickness and diseases from which man suffers in other zones with different climates are here utterly unknown. there exist no problems of conservation and preservation of food supplies， for the latter keep indefinitely without any signs of deterioration； it may even be that later generations will come to regard the antarctic as the natural storehouse for the whole world.
plans are already on foot to set up permanent bases on the shores of this continent， and what so few years ago was regarded as a “dead continent” now promises to be a most active center of human life and endeavor.
1.when did man begin to explore the antarctic？
a.about 100years ago. b.in this century. c.at the beginning of the 19th century. d.in 1798.
2.what must the explorers be， even though they have modern equipment and techniques？
a.brave and tough b.stubborn and arrogant. c.well-liked and humorous. d.stout and smart.
3.the most healthy climate in the world is___. a.in south america. b.in the arctic region. c.in the antarctic continent. d.in the atlantic ocean.
4.what kind of metals and minerals can we find in the antarctic？
a.magnetite， coal and ores. b.copper， coal and uranium. c.silver， natural gas and uranium. d.aluminum， copper and natural gas.
5.what is planned for the continent？
a.building dams along the coasts. b.setting up several summer resorts along the coasts. c.mapping the coast and whole territory. d.setting up permanent bases on the coasts.
which is safer-staying at home， traveling to work on public transport， or working in the office？ surprisingly， each of these carries the same risk， which is very low. however， what about flying compared to working in the chemical industry？ unfortunately， the former is 65 times riskier than the latter！ in fact， the accident rate of workers in the chemical industry is less than that of almost any of human activity， and almost as safe as staying at home.
the trouble with the chemical industry is that when things go wrong they often cause death to those living nearby. it is this which makes chemical accidents so newsworthy. fortunately， they are extremely rare. the most famous ones happened at texas city （1947），flixborough （1974）， seveso （1976）， pemex （1984） and bhopal （1984）。
some of these are always in the minds of the people even though the loss of life was small. no one died at seveso， and only 28 workers at flixborough. the worst accident of all was bhopal， where up to 3，000 were killed. the texas city explosion of fertilizer killed 552. the pemex fire at a storage plant for natural gas in the suburbs of mexico city took 542 lives， just a month before the unfortunate event at bhopal.
some experts have discussed these accidents and used each accident to illustrate a particular danger. thus the texas city explosion was caused by tons of ammonium nitrate（硝酸铵），which is safe unless stored in great quantity. the flixborough fireball was the fault of management， which took risks to keep production going during essential repairs. the seveso accident shows what happens if the local authorities lack knowledge of the danger on their doorstep. when the poisonous gas drifted over the town， local leaders were incapable of taking effective action. the pemex fire was made worse by an overloaded site in an overcrowded suburb. the fire set off a chain reaction os exploding storage tanks. yet， by a miracle， the two largest tanks did not explode. had these caught fire， then 3，000 strong rescue team and fire fighters would all have died.
1.which of the following statements is true？
a.working at the office is safer than staying at home.
b.traverlling to work on public transport is safer than working at the office.
c.staying at home is safer than working in the chemical industry.
d.working in the chemical industry is safer than traveling by air.
2.chemical accidents are usually important enough to be reported as news because ____.
a.they are very rare
b.they often cause loss of life
c.they always occur in big cities
d.they arouse the interest of all the readers
3.according to passage， the chemical accident that caused by the fault of management happened at ____.
a.texas city b.flixborough c.seveso d.mexico city
4.from the passage we know that ammonium nitrate is a kind of ____.
a.natural gas， which can easily catch fire
b.fertilizer， which can"t be stored in a great quantity
c.poisonous substance， which can"t be used in overcrowded areas
d.fuel， which is stored in large tanks
5.from the discussion among some experts we may coclude that ____.
a.to avoid any accidents we should not repair the facilities in chemical industry
b.the local authorities should not be concerned with the production of the chemical industry
c.all these accidents could have been avoided or controlled if effective measure had been taken
d.natural gas stored in very large tanks is always safe
most of us are taught to pay attention to what is said—the words. words do provide us with some information， but meanings are derived from so many other sources that it would hinder our effectiveness as a partner to a relationship to rely too heavily on words alone. words are used to describe only a small part of the many ideas we associate with any given message. sometimes we can gain insight into some of those associations if we listen for more than words.
we don‘t always say what we mean or mean what we say. sometimes our words don’t mean anything except “ i‘m letting off some steam. i don’t really want you to pay close attention to what i‘m saying. just pay attention to what i’m feeling.” mostly we mean several things at once. a person wanting to purchase a house says to the current owner， “this step has to be fixed before i‘ll buy.” the owner says， “ it’s been like that for years.” actually， the step hasn‘t been like that for years， but the unspoken message is： “ i don’t want to fix it. we put up with it. why can‘t you？” the search for a more expansive view of meaning can be developed of examining a message in terms of who said it， when it occurred， the related conditions or situation， and how it was said.
when a message occurs can also reveal associated meaning. let us assume two couples do exactly the same amount of kissing and arguing. but one couple always kisses after an argument and the other couple always argues after a kiss. the ordering of the behaviors may mean a great deal more than the frequency of the behavior. a friend‘s unusually docile behavior may only be understood by noting that it was preceded by situations that required an abnormal amount of assertiveness. some responses may be directly linked to a developing pattern of responses and defy logic. for example， a person who says “no！” to a serials of charges like “you’re dumb，” “you‘re lazy，” and “you’re dishonest，” may also say “no！” and try to justify his or her response if the next statement is “and you‘re good looking.”
we would do well to listen for how messages are presented. the words， “if sure has been nice to have you over，” can be said with emphasis and excitement or ritualistically. the phrase can be said once or repeated several times. and the meanings we associate with the phrase will change accordingly. sometimes if we say something infrequently it assumes more importance； sometimes the more we say something the less importance it assumes.
1.effective communication is rendered possible between two conversing partners， if ___.
a.they use proper words to carry their ideas.
b.they both speak truly of their own feelings.
c.they try to understand each other‘s ideas beyond words.
d.they are capable of associating meaning with their words.
2.“i‘m letting off some steam” in paragraph 1 means___.
a.i‘m just calling your attention.
b.i‘m just kidding.
c.i‘m just saying the opposite.
d.i‘m just giving off some sound.
3.the house-owner‘s example shows that he actually means___.
a.the step has been like that for years.
b.he doesn‘t think it necessary to fix the step.
c.the condition of the step is only a minor fault.
d.the cost involved in the fixing should be shared.
4.some responses and behaviors may appear very illogical， but are justifiable if___.
a.linked to an abnormal amount of assertiveness.
b.seen as one‘s habitual pattern of behavior.
c.taken as part of an ordering sequence.
d.expressed to a series of charges.
5.the word “ritualistically” in the last paragraph equals something done___.
a.without true intention.
c.in a way of ceremony.
d.with less emphasis.
How to Deal with Sub-health Nowadays, quite a few people are suffering from sub-health. Indeed, sub-health can result in both physical and mental diseases. Even worse, people who suffer from sub-health are more easily to die prematurely. There are many factors resulting in sub-health. Among these, the pace of modern life plays a vital role. The fast pace of modern life exerts great pressure on people and pressure is the ultimate cause of sub-health. Whats more, modern people spend too much night time working or entertaining, which seriously affects their health.
Considering the great harm brought by sub-health, I think it is high time that we took effective measures to prevent sub-health.
Firstly, people must have enough sleep to ensure that they can regain energy and physical strength. Secondly, people should have a rational diet under the instruction of doctor in order to avoid the diseases caused by malnutrition or super-nutrition.
Thirdly, people should regularly do some exercise to keep healthy. To conclude, it is necessary for us to take flexible measures to avoid the threat of sub-health.
1：Actions speak louder than words.事实胜于雄辩
2：All is not gold that glitters.发光的未必都是金子
3：All roads lead to Rome.条条大路通罗马
4：A good beginning is half done.良好的开端是成功的一半
5：Every advantage has its disadvantage有利必有弊
6：A miss is as good as a mile.失之毫厘，差之千里
7：Failure is the mother of success.失败是成功之母
8：Industry is the parent of success.勤奋是成功之母
9：It is never too old to learn.活到老，学到老
10：Knowledge is power.知识就是力量
11：Nothing in the world is difficult for one who sets his mind to it.世上无难事，只怕有心人
Directions: Suppose you are asked to give advice on whether to attend college at home or abroad, write an essay to state your opinion. You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Nowadays, there has been a heated discussion as to a better choice between attending college at home and abroad. Views on the topic vary greatly among people from different walks of life. Some believe that it is a better choice to study in domestic colleges, but others consider it better to study abroad. I totally agree with the latter idea for the reasons presented below. To begin with, it harms the society in that the greater the competition is, the higher the recruitment requirements will become. Therefore, with experiences of studying abroad, graduates will become more competitive in job hunting. Furthermore, it is beneficial to the students themselves to study abroad. Without the choice to pursue overseas study, many great scholars today would never have achieved such great success. From my perspective, it is crucial that the government should encourage people to pursue overseas study. Also it is crucial that people should understand the meaning and value of attending college abroad. Only in this way can we achieve greater success.
is it possible to persuade mankind to live without war？ war is an ancient institution， which has existed for at least six thousand years. it was always bad and usually foolish， but in the past human race managed to live with it. modern ingenuity has changed this. either man will abolish war， or war will abolish man. for the present， it is nuclear weapons that cause the most serious danger， but bacteriological or chemical weapons may， before long， offer an even greater threat. if we succeed in abolishing nuclear weapons， our work will not be done. it will never be done until we have succeeded in abolishing war. to do this， we need to persuade mankind to look upon international questions in a new way， not as contests of force， in which the victory goes to the side which is most skillful in killing people， but by arbitration in accordance with agreed principles of law. it is not easy to change very old mental habits， but this is what must be attempted.
there are those who say that the adoption of this or that ideology would prevent war. i believe this to be a big error. all ideologies are based upon dogmatic statements that are， at best， doubtful， and at worst， totally false. their adherents believe in them so fanatically that they are willing to go to war in support of them.
the movement of world opinion during the past few years has been very largely such as we can welcome. it has become a commonplace that nuclear war must be avoided. of course very difficult problems remain in the world， but the spirit in which they are being approached is a better one than it was some years ago. it has begun to be thought， even by the powerful men who decide whether we shall live or die， that negotiations should reach agreements even if both sides do not find these agreements wholly satisfactory. it has begun to be understood that the important conflict nowadays is not between different countries， but between man and the atom bomb.
1.this passage implies that war is now ___.
a.worse than in the past.
b.as bad as in the past
c.not so dangerous as in the past
d.as necessary as in the past
2.in the sentence “to do this， we need to persuade mankind” （para 1）， “this” refers to ___.
c.solve international problems
d.live a peaceful life
3.from paragraph 2 we learn that the author of the passage ___.
a.is an adherent of some modern ideologies.
b.does not think that adoption of any ideology could prevent war.
c.believe that the adoption of some ideology could prevent war.
d.does not doubt the truth of any ideologies.
4.according to the author， ___.
a.war is the only way to solve international disputes.
b.war will be less dangerous because of the improvement of weapons.
c.it is impossible for the people to live without war.
d.war must be abolished if man wants to survive.
5.the last paragraph suggests that ___.
a.international agreements can be reached more easily now.
b.man begins to realize the danger of nuclear war.
c.nuclear war will definitely not take place.
d.world opinion welcomes nuclear war
we can begin our discussion of “population as global issue” with what most persons mean when they discuss “the population problem”： too many people on earth and a too rapid increase in the number added each year. the facts are not in dispute， it was quite right to employ the analogy that likened demographic growth to “a long， thin powder fuse that burns steadily and haltingly until it finally reaches the charge and explodes.”
to understand the current situation， which is characterized by rapid increases in population， it is necessary to understand the history of population trends. rapid growth is a comparatively recent phenomenon. looking back at the 8，000 years of demographic history， we find that populations have been virtually stable or growing very slightly for most of human history. for most of our ancestors， life was hard， often nasty， and very short. there was high fertility in most places， but this was usually balanced by high mortality. for most of human history， it was seldom the case that one in ten persons would live past forty， while infancy and childhood were especially risky periods. often， societies were in clear danger of extinction because death rates could exceed their birthrates. thus， the population problem throughout most of history was how to prevent extinction of the human race. this pattern is important to notice. not only does it put the current problems of demographic growth into a historical perspective， but it suggests that the cause of rapid increase in population in recent years is not a sudden enthusiasm for more children， but an improvement in the conditions that traditionally have caused high mortality. demographic history can be divided into two major periods： a time of long， slow growth which extended from about 8，000 bc.till approximately ad. 1650. in the first period of some 9600 years， the population increased from some 8 million to 500 million in 1650. between 1650 and the present， the population has increased from 500 million to more than 4 billion. and it is estimated that by the year there will be 6.2 billion people throughout the world. one way to appreciate this dramatic difference in such abstract numbers is to reduce the time frame to something that is more manageable. between 8000bc and 1650， an average of only 50，000 persons was being added annually to the world‘s population each year. at present， this number is added every six hours. the increase is about 80，000，000 persons annually.
1.which of the following demographic growth pattern is most suitable for the long thin powder fuse analogy？
a.a virtually stable or slightly decreasing period and then a sudden explosion of population.
b.a slow growth for a long time and then a period of rapid， dramatic increase.
c.too many people on earth and a few rapid increase in the number added each year.
d.a long period when death rates exceeds birthrates and then a short period with higher fertility and lower mortality.
2.during the first period of demographic history， societies were often in danger of extinction because___.
a.only one in ten persons could live past 40.
b.there was higher mortality than fertility in most places.
c.it was too dangerous to have babies due to the poor conditions.
d.our ancestors had little enthusiasm for more children.
3.which statement is true about population increase？
a.there might be an increase of 2.2 billion persons from now to the year 2000.
b.about 50，000 babies are born every six hours at present.
c.between 8000 bc and the present， the population increase is about 80，000，000 persons each year.
d.the population increased faster between 8000bc and 1650 than between 1650 and the present.
4.the author of the passage intends to___.
a.warn people against the population explosion in the near future.
b.compare the demographic growth pattern in the past with that after 1650.
c.find out the cause for rapid increase in population in recent years.
d.present us a clear and complete picture of the demographic growth.
5.the word “demographic” in the first paragraph means___.
a.statistics of human.
c.accumulation of human.
d.development of human.
abnormal α.不正常的 95-1-42 98-1-58
absurd α.荒缪的 99-6-39
abundant α.丰富的 89-1-59
acute α.敏锐的 锋利的 96-1-63
aggressive α.侵略的 好斗的 94-1-63
ambiguous α.模棱两可的 模糊的01-6-60
ambitious α.有雄心的 有抱负的 00-1-58
appropriate α.合适的 恰当的 00-6-41
authentic α.可靠的 可信的 01-1-43
average α.一般的 普通的 97-6-44
barren α.贫瘠的 不毛的 99-6-60
bound α.一定的 90-1-55
chronic α.慢性的 01-1-42
commentary α. 实况报道 99-6-46
compact α.紧凑的 小巧的 99—1—63
competitive α.竞争性的 具有竞争力的
compact a. 紧凑的，小巧的 99-1-63
competitive a. 竞争性的，具有竞争力的
compulsory a. 强迫的，强制的，义务的
confidential a. 机紧的，秘密的 01-6-59
conservative a. 保守的，传统的 96-1-54
consistent a. 和……一致 95-6-47
conspicuous a. 显而易见的，引人注目的
crucial a. 关键的 00-1-54
current a. 当前的 93-1-70
current a. 当前的 89-1-69
decent a. 体面的，像样的，还不错的` 00-1-67
delicate a. 精细的，微妙的，精心处理的
destructive a. 毁灭的 01-1-46
economic a. 经济的 93-6-59
elegant a. 优雅的，优美的，精致的 96-6-42
embarrassing a. 令人尴尬的 93-6-61
energetic a. 精力充沛的 98-1-59
equivalent a. 相等的 91-6-46
eternal a. 永恒的，无休止的 00-6-45
exclusive a. 独有的，排他的 97-1-60
extinct a. 灭绝的 01-1-40
extinct a. 灭绝的，绝种的 99-6-40
fatal a. 假的，冒充的 98-1-56
fatal a. 致命的，毁灭性的 96-6-62
feasible a. 可行的 00-1-42
feeble a. 脆弱的，虚弱的 99-1-60
gloomy a. 暗淡的 01-4-48
greasy a. 油腻的 00-1-56
identical a. 相同的，一样的 95-1-64 01-6-67
imaginative a. 富有想象力的，爱想象的
inaccessible a. 可接近的，易使用的 96-1-43
inadequate a. 不充分的，不适当的 99-1-44
incredible a. 难以置信的96-6-53 98-1-68
indifference a. 不关心的，冷漠的 9
the above table clearly mirrors an upward trend in the number of people who prefer to travel abroad over the last decade. in 1995, there are only ten thousand tourists going overseas to take a trip. in , the figure climbs to approximately 40 thousand, and peaks at 120 thousand in .
there are a huge number of reasons behind this phenomenon, of which the most important one is --china"s booming economy.
thanks to the deepening of reform and opening-up, citizens of the middle kingdom enjoy a sharp improvement in their living standards. they have enormous consuming power to pursue higher level of living quality. perhaps getting tired of visiting scenic spots at home, an increasing number of them choose foreign countries as their tour destinations.
when it comes to what impacts it would bring, in my eyes, it would give a huge boost to tour industry both at home and abroad. and it would give chinese deeper insights into foreign cultures. of course, the dark side of this phenomenon also exists. for instance, the uncivilized behavior of some chinese tourists may have a negative impact on china"s image. anyway, overseas travel is beneficial. what really needs to occur is consumer education.
what we know of prenatal development makes all this attempt made by a mother to mold the character of her unborn child by studying poetry， art， or mathematics during pregnancy seem utterly impossible. how could such extremely complex influences pass from the mother to the child？ there is no connection between their nervous systems. even the blood vessels of mother and child do not join directly. an emotional shock to the mother will affect her child， because it changes the activity of her glands and so the chemistry her blood. any chemical change in the mother‘s blood will affect the child for better or worse. but we can not see how a looking for mathematics or poetic genius can be dissolved in blood and produce a similar liking or genius in the child.
in our discussion of instincts we saw that there was reason to believe that whatever we inherit must be of some very simple sort rather than any complicated or very definite kind of behavior. it is certain that no one inherits a knowledge of mathematics. it may be， however， that children inherit more or less of a rather general ability that we may call intelligence. if very intelligent children become deeply interested in mathematics， they will probably make a success of that study.
as for musical ability， it may be that what is inherited is an especially sensitive ear， a peculiar structure of the hands or the vocal organs connections between nerves and muscles that make it comparatively easy to learn the movements a musician must execute， and particularly vigorous emotions. if these factors are all organized around music， the child may become a musician. the same factors， in other circumstance might be organized about some other center of interest. the rich emotional equipment might find expression in poetry. the capable fingers might develop skill in surgery. it is not the knowledge of music that is inherited， then nor even the love of it， but a certain bodily structure that makes it comparatively easy to acquire musical knowledge and skill. whether that ability shall be directed toward music or some other undertaking may be decided entirely by forces in the environment in which a child grows up.
1. which of the following statements is not true？
a. some mothers try to influence their unborn children by studying art and other subjects during their pregnancy.
b. it is utterly impossible for us to learn anything about prenatal development.
c. the blood vessels of mother and child do not join directly.
d. there are no connection between mother‘s nervous systems and her unborn child’s.
2. a mother will affect her unborn baby on the condition that ____.
a. she is emotionally shocked
b. she has a good knowledge of inheritance
c. she takes part in all kind of activities
d. she sticks to studying
3. according to the passage， a child may inherit____.
a. everything from his mother
b. a knowledge of mathematics
c. a rather general ability that we call intelligence
d. her mother‘s musical ability 4. if a child inherits something from his mother， such as an especially sensitive ear， a peculiar structure of the hands or of the vocal organs， he will ____.
a. surely become musician
b. mostly become a poet
c. possibly become a teacher
d. become a musician on the condition that all these factors are organized around music
5. which of the following is the best title for the passage？
a. role of inheritance. b. an unborn child.
c. function of instincts. d. inherited talents.
How to Deal with Sub-health
Nowadays, quite a few people are suffering from sub-health. Indeed, sub-health can result in both physical and mental diseases. Even worse, people who suffer from sub-health are more easily to die prematurely.
There are many factors resulting in sub-health. Among these, the pace of modern life plays a vital role. The fast pace of modern life exerts great pressure on people and pressure is the ultimate cause of sub-health. Whats more, modern people spend too much night time working or entertaining, which seriously affects their health.
Considering the great harm brought by sub-health, I think it is high time that we took effective measures to prevent sub-health. Firstly, people must have enough sleep to ensure that they can regain energy and physical strength. Secondly, people should have a rational diet under the instruction of doctor in order to avoid the diseases caused by malnutrition or super-nutrition. Thirdly, people should regularly do some exercise to keep healthy. To conclude, it is necessary for us to take flexible measures to avoid the threat of sub-health.
there are various ways in which individual economic units can interact with one another. three basic ways may be described as the market system， the administered system， and the traditional system.
in a market system individual economic units are free to interact among each other in the marketplace. it is possible to buy commodities from other economic units or sell commodities to them. in a market， transactions may take place via barter or money exchange. in a barter economy， real goods such as automobiles， shoes， and pizzas are traded against each other. obviously， finding somebody who wants to trade my old car in exchange for a sailboat may not always be an easy task. hence， the introduction of money as a medium of exchange eases transactions considerably. in the modern market economy， goods and services are bought or sold for money.
an alternative to the market system is administrative control by some agency over all transactions. this agency will issue edicts or commands as to how much of each good and service should be produced， exchanged， and consumed by each economic unit. central planning may be one way of administering such an economy. the central plan， drawn up by the government， shows the amounts of each commodity produced by the various firms and allocated to different households for consumption. this is an example of complete planning of production， consumption， and exchange for the whole economy.
in a traditional society， production and consumption patterns are governed by tradition； every person‘s place within the economic system is fixed by parentage， religion， and custom. transactions take place on the basis of tradition， too. people belonging to a certain group or caste may have an obligation to care for other persons， provide them with food and shelter， care for their health， and provide for their education. clearly， in a system where every decision is made on the basis of tradition alone， progress may be difficult to achieve. a stagnant society may result.
1.what is the main purpose of the passage？
a.to outline contrasting types of economic systems.
b.to explain the science of economics.
c.to argue for the superiority of one economic system.
d.to compare barter and money-exchange markets.
2.in the second paragraph， the word “real” in “real goods” could best be replaced by ___，
3.according to the passage， a barter economy can generate ___.
a.rapid speed of transactions.
d.difficulties for the traders.
4.according to the passage， who has the greatest degree of control in the administered system？
5.which of the following is not mentioned by the author as a criterion for determining a person‘s position in a traditional society？
let children learn to judge their own work. a child learning to talk does not learn by being corrected all the time； if corrected too much， he will stop talking. he notices a thousand times a day the difference between the languages he uses and the language those around him use. bit by bit， he makes the necessary changes to make his language like other people. in the same way， when children learn to do all the other things they learn to do without being taught-to walk， run， climb， whistle， ride a bicycle-compare those performances with those of more skilled people， and slowly make the needed changes. but in school we never give a child a chance to find out his own mistakes for himself， let alone correct them. we do it all for him. we act as if we thought that he would never notice a mistake unless it was pointed out to him， or correct it unless he was made to. soon he becomes dependent on the teacher. let him do it himself. let him work out， with the help of other children if he wants it， what this word says， what answer is to that problem， whether this is a good way of saying or doing this or not.
if it is a matter of right answers， as it may be in mathematics or science， give him the answer book. let him correct his own papers. why should we teachers waste time on such routine work？ our job should be to help the child when he tells us that he can‘t find the way to get the right answer. let’s end this nonsense of grades， exams， marks， let us throw them all out， and let the children learn what all educated persons must some day learn， how to measure their own understanding， how to know what they know or do not know.
let them get on with this job in the way that seems sensible to them. with our help as school teachers if they ask for it. the idea that there is a body of knowledge to be learnt at school and used for the rest of one‘s life is nonsense in a world as complicated and rapidly changing as ours. anxious parents and teachers say， “but suppose they fail to learn something essential they will need to get in the world？” don’t worry！ if it is essential， they will go out into the world and learn it.
1.what does the author think is the best way for children to learn things？
a.by copying what other people do.
b.by making mistakes and having them corrected.
c.by listening to explanations from skilled people.
d.by asking a great many questions.
2.what does the author think teachers do which they should not do？
a.they give children correct answers.
b.they point out children‘s mistakes to them.
c.they allow children to mark their own work.
d.they encourage children to mark to copy from one another.
3.the passage suggests that learning to speak and learning to ride a bicycle are___.
a.not really important skills.
b.more important than other skills.
c.basically different from learning adult skills.
d.basically the same as learning other skills.
4.exams， grades， and marks should be abolished because children‘s progress should only be estimated by___.
b.the children themselves.
5.the author fears that children will grow up into adults while being___.
a.too independent of others.
b.too critical of themselves.
c.incapable to think for themselves.
d.incapable to use basic skills.
Hello, my name is XXX. I"m XXX years old. Now I study in XXX as a freshman/sophomore/junior/senior, and my major is XXX. In my free time, I love taking exercises. I believe that a healthy body is the key to a happy life. Thank you.
Good morning! It is a great honor to have this opportunity for this test. My name is XXX. I am XXX years old, born in XXX Province. I am from XXX University, majoring in XXX. I spend most of my time on playing basketball. I like basketball very much. That"s all. Thank you.
1)What are the differences in accent between the people of your hometown and Beijing?
2)What is people’s favorite food in your region?
3)Why is the Spring Festival so important to Chinese people?
4)Can you describe one of the main festivals celebrated in your country?
5)Tell me something about the Lantern Festival.
6)Tell me something about the Qing Ming Festival.
7)Tell me something about the customs of your country.
8)How do you compare the climate in Beijing with that in your hometown?
9)What place in Beijing do you like best? Why ?
10)Which is the best place you’ve been to China?
11)What places in Beijing should a foreigner visit? Why?
12)What are the major social problems in Beijing? How can they be solved?